Saturday, June 29, 2013

Some Gave All: US Submarine Memorial, Pearl Harbor Hawaii

Some Gave All: US Submarine Memorial, Pearl Harbor Hawaii:  This submarine is the subject of a previous entry here as there is a memorial for its crew at the Vetera...

Churches of the West: Hawai'i?

Churches of the West: Hawai'i?: I've already heard the complaint.  Hawai'i? That's not part of the West.  I thought that this blog was about churches of the Wes...

Friday, June 28, 2013

Some Gave All: National Park Service USS Arizona (Pearl Harbor) M...

Some Gave All: National Park Service USS Arizona (Pearl Harbor) M...: The National Park Service administered a park dedicated to the history of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 as ...

Some Gave All: The USS Arizona Memorial, Pearl Harbor Hawaii

Some Gave All: The USS Arizona Memorial, Pearl Harbor Hawaii: The raised anchor of  the USS Arizona. The memorial wall on the USS Arizona memorial listing the crew-members who l...

Some Gave All: USS Oklahoma Memorial, Ford Island, Pearl Harbor, ...

Some Gave All: USS Oklahoma Memorial, Ford Island, Pearl Harbor, ...: 429 crewmen of the USS Oklahoma were killed on December 7, 1941, when the ship capsized from battle damage sustained during the...

Some Gave All: Pearl Harbor Marine Corps Memorial, Pearl Harbor H...

Some Gave All: Pearl Harbor Marine Corps Memorial, Pearl Harbor H...: This monument commemorates the Marines who lost their lives in the December 7, 1941 attack by the Japanese on Pearl Harbor.  The mo...

World War Two Pillbox, Baldwin Beach, Maui Hawaii






Some photographs from Baldwin Beach, Maui, Hawaii, where World War Two era pillboxes remain.

Holscher's Hub: The Hana Highway, Maui, Hawaii

Holscher's Hub: The Hana Highway, Maui, Hawaii: Regarded as one of the ten greatest drives in the world, these are scenes from the Han...

Thursday, June 27, 2013

Military Preparation on College Campuses.

Today In Wyoming's History: February 25: 1919  Photographs were taken of the Student Army Training Corps at the University of Wyoming.  The SATC was the predecessor of the Reserve Officer Training Corps.  The students here are depicted using the Krag rifle, which was obsolete at the time, but which was apparently seeing at least some training applications of this type.

This certainly shows an interesting cultural difference between 1919 and 2013.  In 1919, a huge war had just ended.  In 2013, of course, we find ourselves at war, but a war, which no matter how horrible it may be, is small by historical standards.  The population is generally supportive of the soldiers, while support for the war at large is waning.  It's hard to imagine a thing like this occurring today, however.

Of course, this wouldn't last.  A forgotten fact about World War One is that the war was not popular in recollection by  the 1920s, that being part of the atmosphere of the Jazz Age.  People looked back on it as a mistake.  World War Two, which of course was fought against the same major European foe, changed that view, and military training in the form of ROTC would become popular on college campuses once again.

Monday, June 24, 2013

Holscher's Hub: Henry Fairlie's The Idiocy of Urban Life or The Co...

I mentioned the late Henry Fairlie's essay The Idiocy of Urban Life in a post here the other day, and found that when I'd earlier linked it in, I'd done so on my Holscher's Hub blog. That link is here:


The way I work the blogs now days has changed a bit.  Originally, this blog was strictly limited to historical topics, with a focus on the turn of the prior century and changes that have occurred from them to now.  It sill is, but it's also where I generally post any other topic that I want to babble about.  That wasn't the case at first.  Now, I would have posted Fairlie's comments here, so I will do so. Above is a like to my earlier Holscher's Hub post.  Here's a direct link to Fairlie's Essay:


Fairlie was a British born author who wrote for The New Republic.  He had a brilliant satiric whit.  This article was actually a reply to an article that had appeared only shortly before in The New Republic and which took for its title a phrase used by Karl Marx about rural life in which Marx  complained about "the idiocy of rural life."  No matter how you feel about cities, Fairlie's essay is simply too good to be ignored and raises many thought provoking points.

As for Marx, Marx seems to have lumped, in a juvenile fashion, anything that cut against his views as dumb, deluded or dangerous, a rather juvenile approach to thought, and not worthy of intellectual endeavors.  It's amazing, in that context, that anyone ever took him seriously.

Friday, June 21, 2013

How long is your work commute, door to door? - ABA Journal

How long is your work commute, door to door? - ABA Journal


I meant to post this item awhile back, but it is an interesting query.

According to The Idiocy of Urban Life, the classic essay by The New Republic's Henrie Fairlie, the average 19th Century industrial worker had a seven mile, walking, commute to work. At that time, and up until at least the 1920s, people who lived in the center of cities were more well to do than those who lived on the city's margins, with some extremely notable exceptions, as that allowed the richer to walk to their offices and to city services more readily, while the poorer had to hike.  Now, of course, the reverse is true.

I think my commute is about three miles long, and in the summer I do it by bicycle, weather and schedule allowing.  I've known, however, friends of mine who had very long urban commutes indeed.  And even here I've known people who drove 30 miles one way every day to go to work, something that would have been inconceivable before widespread ownership of the automobile.


Wednesday, June 19, 2013

World War II Law and Lawyers by Thomas J. Shaw.

This book advertisement recently arrived in my email.  Anyone familiar with this book?  If so, let me know what you thought of it.  Good, bad,, indifferent?



Trouble viewing?  Try Blackberry version .






American Bar Association

World War II Law and Lawyers:
Issues, Cases, and Characters




ABA New Book Release!
The Second World War generated a whole new set of legal issues that were addressed by a new generation of laws, cases, and legal personalities. More well-known for the heroics and perseverance of the "Greatest Generation," the story of the legal side of the war is now told in a new and compelling book. In it, you'll find fifty-two compelling legal issues including:
  • Subverting the judiciary and creating a divine military
  • Economic and social issues
  • Genocide and nuclear weapons, and more!
For every legal issue identified, the laws passed and the cases tried to address these legal issues are discussed, and the legal personalities behind the issues, laws, and cases are presented. This eye-opening book has something for everyone--lawyer, history buff, or general reader.
Related Products and Programs

New Book!

$49.95
General Public
$34.95
ABA Members
By Thomas J. Shaw Esq.
2013
Hardcover with dustjacket
588 Pages
This message was sent to pat@schwartzbon.com.
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Monday, June 17, 2013

Credit where credit is due, and L. L. Bean

One of the things, of course, that this blog is supposed to do is to track changes in things over time.  And one of the things I've touched on, from time to time, is clothing.  Indeed, I have a thread pending now on blue jeans.  It's months old actually.  One thing that isn't obvious to readers is that some of the thread are actually pretty old, or perhaps long in the making, by the time I post them.

Anyhow, in clothing themes, it's easy to lament a decline in quality, and I was going to do that on dress clothing recently, but instead I'm just got to diss Lands End a bit, and praise L. L. Bean.

Now, I'll be the first to admit that I don't really like buying true dress clothing, but I do have to have some because of one of my occupations.  For courtroom work, or even just lawyerly office work, a person needs dress clothing. 

Some time ago, in getting ready for a trial, I determined that some of my older wool dress pants were in need of replacement. The old ones were worn out, and frankly I'd added an inch to my waste-line.  The trousers that needed replacement were some Lands End wool dress trousers. 

Frankly, I hadn't been super impressed with them in the first place, as they seemed rather thin, which I do not like, but I chalked that up to modern times, in which wool stuff is expensive. I replaced them with a new set of the same trousers.

Well, the new Lands End wool trousers wore out extremely rapidly.  It was disappointing and a bit aggravating as well.  I nearly posted at that time about the decline in such things, but I chose not to, or just didn't get around to it.  In the meantime, I was getting ready for another trial, and the fact that all of my thin, thin, nearly new, Lands End wool trousers had developed holes in the crotch meant that they had to be replaced.  I nearly ordered from Lands End again, but didn't.

Instead, I went back to L. L. Bean, where I had ordered such trousers many years ago.

And man, what a difference.  The L. L. Bean trousers are nice stout wool.  I noted when I ordered them that their weight was heavier, and man, are they much nicer.  Guess it shows I shouldn't have gone cheap in the first place. Yes, they're a bit more expensive, but in real terms, given the decline in the value of the dollar over time, I guess not unreasonably so.  Indeed, I suspect that with trousers, what I've been doing is basing the pricing off of what things costs 20 years ago, when I first started practicing law.  Obviously, a person can't do that.

I'll further note that, at the same time, I ordered some Oxford cloth button down shirts from L. L. Bean.  Again., much better than others I've recently seen.  Nice stuff.

Well, thumbs up L. L. Bean, and boo hiss Lands End.  . 

Friday, June 14, 2013

Television?

I'll be the first to confess that perhaps my opinions various television programming is suspect, as I don't really follow television much.  It's not that I'm in the category of a television protester, like some folks are, and have tossed out TV out the window.  No, we have a TV. Two actually, which seems to be an increasingly small number for many houses.  I guess, in thinking about it, we have three actually, as I have one out in my shed as well.  Our used travel trailer came with one, but we never watched it and I wiped it out taking the trailer up the Big Horns in 2012.  As nobody ever watched that TV, nobody ever expressed the desire to replace it, and I always thought it a bit odd that it had one.  It isn't the fanciest trailer in the world and, for that matter, you have to fire up the generator to use it, which would seem to be a pain.

My association with television began to decline when I entered the University of Wyoming, which is now some 30 years ago.  For most of the time I was an undergraduate I didn't have a television, and I didn't miss it. When I was a law student, I lacked a television for two out of the three years I was in law school.  I didn't have space for one, and I just didn't miss it.  Electronic stuff wise, at that time, I had a compact stereo/record player.  I didn't have a computer, which was something most of us lacked, and I just didn't bother much with TV until my last year at law school, when I brought a very small television down to Laramie that my father had.  At any rate, since 1983 I haven't really followed very much television regularly, with some exceptions.  There's a few TV series I've followed over that thirty year period, but just a few.  That doesn't say anything wonderful about me, it's just a fact.

After law school, and before I was married, I did renew my acquittance with older movies.  While I hardly ever go to the movies, I do like movies, and I like classic movies a great deal.  In the several years I was away at university the movie channels developed and when I started watching television again, that's what I tended to watch.  I still do, although after getting married, and more particularly having children, I've just basically lost control of TV in general.  I know what's on TV, and I know what I really dislike about TV, but I don't watch much TV.

Maybe this was true for some in the radio era also, but there are some syndicated things on the TV which I just don't get.  This is beyond that which I don't like, I just don't get it.  Those things inspired this post.

 The cooking shows.
 
I realize that there's always been cooking shows on television.  Always.  All a person has to do is look back to Julia Childs, who remains a well respected and well remembered early television figure, to realize that.  But since there are now a zillion television channels, it seems to have gone completely out of control.  Nothing demonstrates this more fully than The Food Channel.

Food Channel?  How bizarre. An entire channel devoted to nothing but cooking shows.  It's one of the weird ironies of modern life that at the same time that the UN comes out with one of its typical overblown panicky warnings (see Holscher's Eighth Law of Human Behavior) that in the future we'll all have to eat bugs that the evidence is that that food abundance has reach the ridiculous level that we can now play games with food. There are food competitions based on such things as cakes that are designed to illustrate fables or cupcakes made out of the improbable.  Cupcakes, in particular, have enjoyed an absurd level of televised attention. Cupcakes are cupcakes, they don't deserve a television show.  None the less, there are cupcake competitions which will even involve such unlikely things as a team of radical sugar free vegans who have to make cupcakes out of nothing other than wallpaper paste and flax seed, and make it taste like pastrami.  

There was even a series, and may still be, featuring two women who lived in the D. C. area and who ran a cupcake shop. They had a lot of infighting on a modern level, and called their mother "mommy" even though they're in their 30s. That alone sort of bothered me.

One that really bothers is me is Cake Boss.  Cake Boss?  Cake Boss involves some big city bakery that bakes cakes, and it seems everyone who works in it is related.  They spend a lot of time sort of arguing with each other, and the show is sort of a stereotype of Italians.  I'm surprised that Italians aren't offended actually.

Anyhow, neither of the shows mentioned above bother me as much as cooking shows do.  Does anyone actually cook any of these recipes.  I highly doubt it. But the number of the shows is endless.  I think people are watching them, and then they go and fix a bowl of cheerios for dinner.

This isn't; to say that every single show on these channels is horrible.  I sort of like the ones where the hosts travel around and sample restaurants.  I've actually eaten at a couple of cafes that showed up on such shows, when I was in those cities, so those shows are a little useful.  But I don't think a show on how to cook some odd Lithuanian dish in 25 minutes actually means that even one single person ever makes it, and I'm not sure why anyone wants to watch a show that shows you how to.

Wedding shows.

Even stranger than the cooking shows are the vast number of wedding shows.
A subset of this genera involves insanely expensive wedding dresses.  I was married not quite 20 years ago and while we thought wedding dresses were generally expensive, they didn't cost anything like what television portrays.  I suppose that's because the dresses that are portrayed in things like Say Yes to the Dress or Say No to the Schmo, or whatever they are, are being bought by the wealthy.  I hope so, because a lot of the dresses actually exceed the median annual income for the middle class.  No kidding.  But as odd as that is, I don't grasp why it is interesting to watch a bunch of people you don't know buy a dress.  Would a show based on buying a set of athletic shoes deserve weekly attention?  I wonder.

While I find the dress shows strange, I find the competitive wedding shows appalling, and is at least one such show.  In that show, four brides are pitted against each other and rate each others weddings.  The weddings are rated on superficialities.  My son happened to catch one (because my wife and daughter like these shows) in which the brides rated down a Greek Orthodox wedding because it was too traditional. Seriously?  A person who would rate down a Greek Orthodox wedding as too traditional is ignorant beyond belief.  Of course its traditional.  It's a Greek Orthodox wedding and meant to be taken seriously, a sacrament in the Greek Orthodox faith with a form going back a thousand years or more.  

But why would brides want to compete in the first place?  Bizarre.

Pregnant again shows

It must be a sign of the cultural times that television audiences apparently find large families, or even just pregnancy, novel.

It wasn't all that long ago that large families were fairly common.  I knew plenty of kids when I was a kid who came from families that had seven or so children.  One person I was friendly with came from a family where she was one of twelve children.  A graduate student I knew at UW was the youngest of fifteen children.  What seemed odd, at the time, was to be an only child, which I was, or to be the only child in the household as the siblings were much older, which described the situation of at least one of my friends.  What was really unusual was to meet a child whose parents were divorced.  I don't think I knew anyone who was being raised by just one parent.

Now, this situation is so reversed that there are actually television shows devoted to the topic of big families.  I just can't quite grasp why that's so novel, and it seems extremely voyeuristic to me.  To follow somebody around with the "gee, shes pregnant again!" type of implication is a little perverse, but it would seem to describe such shows to an extent.  Indeed, just this morning I overhead on the Today Show, which was on (but I wasn't watching, that married son of the Duggers, who have one such show, and his wife are going to have a (second?) child.  Well, so what?  Is that really that interesting?  Congratulations to them, to be sure, but why is that newsworthy?

In some ways this seems to have gotten started with a couple of shows about families that had a large number of children at one time.  So, for example, there was Jon and Kate plus Eight, the novelty being that the couple had all but one (I think) of their kids at one time, through fertility drugs.  That this was the novelty, however, seems to have been quickly forgotten, and now it suffices just for a couple to have a lot of children.

This has even developed to the point where even people having smaller sized families is deemed noteworthy if the couple is a celebrity couple.  There are a couple of television shows that have had this as a platform even though I can't grasp why that should be any more interesting to people than any other couple having children.  Indeed in real terms, it isn't, as you don't know the couple.

The worst example of this show, in my view, is MTV's Sixteen and Pregnant.  Defenders of the show argue that it shows the viewers that you don't want to be sixteen and pregnant, but what it really seems to do is follow around a fairly clueless set of male and female couples in an expertize of pathos. And it seems to me that its simply odd to be following around teenagers with a camera and pretend that the cameraman isn't there.  Of course the camera is there.  Who has a deep meaningful discussion on anything with a camera there?

Well, anyway, there's still the old movie channels.


USDA Blog » Rooting Up History: Feral Swine Damage to Archaeological Sites

USDA Blog » Rooting Up History: Feral Swine Damage to Archaeological Sites

Tuesday, June 11, 2013

Pemco automatic reel






This ia Pemco fly fishing reel that's rather old, which I recently pressed back into service.  I'm pretty sure I have it mounted backwards here, but I rather absentmindedly did this as the line was feeding out from the other direction.  I rather obviously could have fixed that, but I just took it for granted that it was feeding out from the correct direction.

The action of this reel is rather odd, and I wouldn't buy one if it were offered now.  It's an automatic reel.  That is, the line retracts when the trigger is pressed.  Having said that, I'm rather surprised by how well it works.

Anybody know anything about these?

Epilog

I had the occasion to take this apart the other day, as I had to add line to it.  In the process, I stripped it down to clean it. Turns out it works much like a wind up clock.

 
Here's what keep the whole thing running. A long steel spring that is set to an axle, which is set by tightening the base.

Monday, June 10, 2013

SUVs before SUVs


A 1962 Dodge Power Giant Carryall.  Not mine, I saw it for sale the other day while driving through town.  It appears in nice shape, and still features bias ply tires.  This is a D100 Carryall, which means its rated at 1/2 ton, although it has a two speed rear axle.  Of course, I don't know anything about it or what is, or isn't original.  It looks pretty original, however.

Anyhow, it's interesting how SUVs are supposed to be a modern concept, with the Chevrolet Suburban supposedly sort of ushering them in. But Suburban's themselves go way back, and before them were vehicles like this Dodge Carryall.  Carryalls, in fact, go all the way back to World War Two.

Of course, these aren't easy to drive.  It has a manual transmission and armstrong steering.  And, of course, conventional hydraulic brakes.  Not something a soccer mom, or dad, would probably drive.  Still, it's interesting to note how far back the concept of a full sized 4x4, built on a truck frame, goes.  About as far back as 4x4 trucks themselves.

Today In Wyoming's History: June 10: A look at the early Girl Scouts

Today In Wyoming's History: June 10: 1858  The Army takes control of Ft. Bridger.

1888  A baseball game between Ft. McKinney and the town team for Buffalo resulted in a Ft....
1890  The Western Beef Company filed for incorporation and listed it's capital as  $15,000,000. Attribution:  Wyoming State Historical Society.
1890  Ft. Laramie's grounds and associated timber reserves transferred to the Department of the Interior. Attribution:  On This Day.
1902  Rt. Rev. James J. Keane. D. D named Catholic Bishop of the Diocese of Cheyenne.
1915 Girl Scouts founded.  This was an expansion of the scouting movement started by English Lord Baden Powell, which was a significant movement at the time.

Award from the 1925 edition of the Girl Scouts manual, courtesy of project Gutenberg.


SECTION XVIII

GIRL SCOUT PROFICIENCY TESTS AND SPECIAL MEDALS

For details regarding these badges see the
"BLUE BOOK OF RULES FOR GIRL SCOUT CAPTAINS"

CONTENTS
I. Introduction to Proficiency Tests.
II. Proficiency Tests:
 *** Subjects marked thus are specially recommended for First Class Scouts or girls at least sixteen years old.
 **** Subjects marked thus are for Scouts eighteen years and over.
ArtistEconomistMilliner
Athlete***ElectricianMotorist****
Bee-KeeperFarmerMusician
Bird HunterFirst Aide***Needlewoman
BuglerFlower FinderPathfinder
Business Women***        GardenerPhotographer
CannerHandy WomanPioneer***
Child NurseHealth Guardian***        Rock Tapper
Citizen***Health WinnerSailor***
CookHome MakerScribe
CraftsmanHome Nurse***Signaller
CyclistHorsewomanStar Gazer
Dairy MaidHostessSwimmer
DancerInterpreterTelegrapher
DressmakerJournalist****Zoologist
DrummerLaundress

III.

 Group Badge
IV. Golden Eaglet.
V. Special Medals:
 Attendance Stars
 Life Saving Medals
 Bronze Cross
 Silver Cross
 Medal of Merit
 Thanks Badge
 Community Service Award
 Scholarship Badge


Proficiency Tests and Merit Badges

1. INTRODUCTION
A girl must be a Second Class Scout before receiving a Merit Badge in any subject. However, this does not mean that she cannot begin to study her subject and plan for passing the test at any time.
Proficiency in these tests is to be determined by the Local Council, or by persons competent (in the opinion of the Council) to judge it. If no Local Council exists, certificates should be secured from persons competent to judge each subject, such as teachers of music, dancing or drawing, riding masters, motorists, electricians, milliners, dressmakers, artists, craftsmen, scientists and so forth. These certificates should be sent to the National Headquarters or to the nearest District Headquarters for inspection. Headquarters will either pass on these, or indicate the nearest local body competent to deal with them.
The tests as given are topical outlines of what a Scout should know about the subject rather than formal questions. Captains and others giving the tests will adapt the wording to the needs of the particular case.
With many subjects a list of standard references is given. It is desirable that a girl should read at least one of these books, not in order to pass an examination but that she may be familiar with the general field and the great names and principles associated with it. Where a whole troop is working on a subject, portions of the books may be read at troop meetings, or several Scouts can read together and discuss their impressions.
It is important that every Girl Scout should understand that the winning of any one of the following Merit Badges does not mean that she is a finished expert in the subject.
What does it mean then? It means three things:
1. She has an intelligent interest in the subject
2. She has a reasonable knowledge of its broad principles
3. She is able to present some practicable proofs of her knowledge, so that a competent examiner can see that she has not simply "crammed it up" from a book. Doing, not talking or writing is the principle of the Girl Scouts
One of the great things about these Merit Badges is that they require a definite amount of perseverance. This is a quality in which women are sometimes said to be lacking; if this is a fair criticism, the Merit Badges will certainly test it.
Nobody compels any Scout to earn these Badges; she deliberately chooses to do so. Therefore, to fail in a task she has voluntarily set herself, comes straight back to her and shows her what stuff she is made of. For while it is of no particular importance how many things you start in this life, it is of great importance how many things you finish! Out OF GOODNESS of heart, or quick interest, or sudden resolution, a girl will start out to master a subject, earn a certain sum of money, make something for herself or someone else, form some good habit or break some bad one; and after her first enthusiasm has died out, where is she? So that a great many people laugh at a girl's plans—and with reason.
Now while this may be merely amusing, so long as it affects only the girl herself, it becomes very annoying when other people's affairs are involved, and may be positively dangerous if carried too far. If your life depended upon a Girl Scout's efforts to resuscitate you from drowning, you would be very glad if she stuck to it. But if she happened to be a girl who had started to win five different Merit Badges, and had given them all up, half way through, what sort of chance do you think you would have?
Girl Scouts are slower to begin than other girls, perhaps, but they stick to it till they've made good. "She carried that through like a Girl Scout" ought to become a common saying.[499]

2. PROFICIENCY TESTS

ARTIST
SYMBOL—A PALETTE
Submit a drawing, a painting, or a model of sculpture which in the judgment of a competent professional represents a sufficiently high order of ability to merit recognition.
This badge is offered with the object of encouraging a talent already existing, and it is not suggested that Girl Scouts should select this badge unless they are possessed of sufficient natural talent to warrant presenting their work to a good judge. The standard required for winning the badge is left to the judgment of the professional as it is impossible for the organization to lay down strict requirements in these subjects.
REFERENCES:
"Children's Book of Art," A. E. Conway, Adam and Charles Black.
"Knights of Art," Amy Steedman, George W. Jacobs and Company.
"Gabriel and the Hour Book," Evaleen Stein.
"Apollo," by S. Reinach, from the French by Florence Simmonds, Scribners.

ATHLETE***
SYMBOL—BASKET BALL
To qualify for this a Girl Scout must be at least fourteen, and must hold the badge for personal health, the "Health Winner."
1. State briefly the value and effect of exercise.
2. Demonstrate habitual good posture, sitting and standing.
3. Demonstrate (a) marching steps, quick and double time, and Scout's Pace.
(b) Setting-up exercises, (as shown in Handbook).
4. Present statement from troop Captain, of a hike of at least 5 miles.
5. Demonstrate with basket ball 5 goals out of 7 trials standing at least 5 feet from basket, OR demonstrate with basket ball distance throw of 40 feet.
6. Demonstrate with indoor base ball accurate pitching for distance of forty feet.
7. Write brief description of rules for five popular games.
8. Play well and be able to coach in any three of the following games: Basket Ball, Battle Ball, Bowling, Captain Ball, Dodge Ball, Long Ball, Punch Ball, Indoor Baseball, Hockey—field or ice, Prisoners' Base, Soccer, Tennis, Golf, Volley Ball Newcomb.
9. Hold swimming badge or bring statement of ability to demonstrate three strokes, swim 100 yards, float and dive. Note: For alternate to swimming requirements see First Class Test, question 7, page 65.
10. Demonstrate three folk dances, using any nationality, OR be a qualified member of a school or society athletic team, playing one summer and one winter sport, OR be able to qualify for entry in a regular competition in some sport such as Tennis, Skating, Skiing. Running, Pitching Quoits, etc.
REFERENCES:
"Games for the Playground, Home, School and Gymnasium," Jessie H. Bancroft, Macmillan.
"Summer in the Girls' Camp," A. W. Coale, Century.
"Book of Athletics," Paul Withington, Lothrop.
"Outdoor Sports and Games," C. H. Miller, Doubleday Page.

BEE KEEPER
SYMBOL—HIVE
1. What constitutes a swarm of bees? How do they live? Tell how honey is gathered and stored and honeycomb is built, and what part the queen, drones and workers play in the life of the colony.
2. Be able to recognize and describe each of the following: queen, drones, workers, eggs, larvae, pupae, honey, bee food, wax, pollen, propolis, brood-nest, comb, different queen cells.
3. Have a practicable knowledge of bee keeping and assist in hiving a swarm, examining a colony, removing the comb, finding the queen, putting foundation in sections, filling and removing supers, and preparing honey in comb and strained for market, and present a certificate to this effect.
4. Know which flowers afford the best food for bees, and how honey varies according to the flowers in color and flavor.
REFERENCES:
"Productive Bee Keeping," Pellett.
Bulletins from Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. Department of Agriculture.
"Life of the Bee," Maurice Maeterlinck, Dodd.
"Queen Bee," Carl Ewald, Thomas Nelson and Sons.
"How to Keep Bees," A. B. Comstock, Doubleday Page.
BIRD HUNTER
SYMBOL—BLUE BIRD
To qualify for this badge a Girl Scout should belong to the Audubon Society[8] and be able to answer the following:
[501]
1.Give list of twenty wild birds personally observed and identified in the open and show field notes including at least the date seen, markings, food habits, nesting habits if known, and migration, if any.
2. Give game-bird laws of her State.
3. Name five birds that destroy rats and mice.
4. Give list of ten birds of value to farmers and fruit growers in the destruction of insects on crops and trees.
5. (a) Tell what the Audubon Society is and how it endeavors to protect the birds.
(b) Give name and location of two large bird refuges; explain the reason for their establishment and give names of the birds they protect.
6. (a) Know what an aigret is. How obtained and from what bird.
(b) Tell methods to attract birds winter and summer.
1. GENERAL REFERENCES: (At least one must be read to qualify for badge).
"Method of Attracting Wild Birds," Gilbert H. Trafton, Houghton, Mifflin Co.
"Bird Study Book," T. Gilbert Pearson, Doubleday Page Co.
"Wild Bird Guests," Ernest Harold Baynes, E. P. Dutton Co.
2. HANDBOOKS AND SPECIAL BIRD BOOKS:
"Hawks and Owls of the United States," A. K. Fisher.
"Useful Birds and Their Protection," Edward H. Forbush, Massachusetts Board of Agriculture.
"Home Life of Wild Birds," F. H. Herrick, G. F. Putnam Co.
"Land Birds East of the Rockies," Chester A. Reed, Doubleday Page Co.
"Water and Game Birds," Chester A. Reed, Doubleday Page Co.
"Western Birds," Chester A. Reed, Doubleday Page Co.
"Handbook of Birds of Eastern North America," Frank M. Chapman, D. Appleton and Co.
"Bird Life," Frank M. Chapman, D. Appleton and Co.
"Handbook of Birds of Western United States," Florence Merriam Bailey, Houghton, Mifflin and Co.
"Children's Book of Birds," O. T. Miller, Houghton, Mifflin Co.
"Burgess Bird Book for Children," W. T. Burgess, Little Brown Co.
BUGLER***
SYMBOL—BUGLE
Play correctly as to notes and time the following calls and marches and play at sight any calls selected:
1, First Call; 2, Reveille; 3, Assembly; 4, Mess; 5, Recall; 6, Fire; 7, Drill; 8, Officers; 9, Retreat; 10, To Colors; 11, To quarters; 12, Taps.
Reference: Cadet Manual, E. L. Steever, Lippincott.[502]
BUSINESS WOMAN***
SYMBOL—NOTE-BOOK
1. Must have a legible and neat handwriting and show a knowledge of spelling and punctuation by writing from dictation a paragraph necessitating use of commas, periods, quotation marks, apostrophe.
2. Must typewrite 40 words a minute, or as an alternative write in shorthand from dictation 70 words a minute as a minimum, and transcribe them at the rate of 35 words.
3. Must show a knowledge of simple bookkeeping and arithmetic.
4. Must show how to make out, and know how and when to use receipts, notes and drafts, and money orders.
5. Must know how to write a simple business letter, such as asking for employment, or a letter recommending a person for employment.
6. Must show how to keep a check book, make out checks and deposit slips, endorse checks, and balance checking accounts.
7. Must keep a simple cash account to show receipts and expenditures of personal funds for three months, OR the household accounts of the family for three months. (This account may be fictitious.)
8. Must be able to write a letter from memory on facts given five minutes previously.
REFERENCES:
"Thrift by Household Accounting," American Economics Association, Baltimore.
"Household Accounts and Economics," Shaeffer, Macmillan.
"What every Business Woman Should Know," Lillian C. Kearney, Stokes.
"Bookkeeping and Accounting," J. J. Klein, Appleton.
"Essential Elements of Business Character," H. G. Stockwell, Revell.
CANNER
SYMBOL—JAR AND FRUIT
1. Submit the following specimens of canning work: (a) six pint jars of two kinds of vegetables, showing the cold pack method; (b) six jars of preserved fruit, at least two kinds; (c) six glasses of jelly, jam or marmalade.
2. What are the essential things to be considered when selecting vegetables to be canned, fruit to be preserved or made into jelly, jam or marmalade?
3. Give general rules for preparing fruits and vegetables for preserving in any way.
4. What kind of jars are considered best for preserving? What other materials are used for making holders besides glass? How should all utensils and jars, glasses, rubbers, be prepared before using?
5. What is essential regarding the heat?
6. What are the general rules for preserving fruit? Give proportions by measure or weight, time of cooking, amount of sugar, water or any other ingredient for the fruits that you have preserved, and for at least two others.
7. Give same rules for jams, marmalades and jellies.
8. Give directions for filling and sealing jars. How can jars be tested within twenty-four hours after filling? If not air tight what should be done?
9. What should be done to all jars, tumblers, etc., before storing? How are canned goods best stored?
REFERENCES:
Government Bulletin—U. S. Department of Agriculture.
"Canning, Preserving and Jelly Making," J. McK. Hill, Little.
CHILD NURSE
SYMBOL—A MALTESE CROSS
1. During a period of three months care for a little child, under two years, for a time equivalent to two hours daily for four weeks. During this period all of the necessary work for routine care of a child must be demonstrated, including feeding, bathing, dressing, preparing for bed, arranging bed and windows, amusing, giving the air, and exercise, and so forth, according to directions in Handbook.
2. What are the most necessary things to be considered when caring for a child under three years of age? Elaborate on these points.
3. What are some of the results of neglecting to do these things? What is the importance of regularity in care, to child, to mother, or nurse?
4. Should a child be picked up or fed every time he cries? What is the result of so doing?
5. What are the important things to remember in lifting and handling children?
6. What things are important in connection with their sleeping, either in or out of doors? Up to what age should a child have two naps a day? One nap? What time should a child be put to bed?
7. How can a baby be encouraged to move itself and take exercise?
8. What should be done when preparing a baby's bath? How should the bath be given to a little baby? To an older child?
9. How is a child prepared for bed? How are the bed and room prepared?
10. What is the best food for a child up to nine months? If he cannot have this food, what can take its place, and how should it be given? What are the principal things to remember concerning the ingredients and preparation of this food, and the care of utensils?
11. At what age may a child be given solid food with safety? What foods are best and how should they be prepared?
12. When feeding a child either from a bottle or a spoon, what precautions should be taken? How often should a child under one year be fed? from one to two years?
13. When suffering from a cold what precautions should be taken? If it is necessary to continue to care for a child in spite of your cold? What is the wisest thing to do first if a child is ill?
REFERENCES:
"The Baby, His Care and Training," M. Wheeler, Harper.
"Care and Feeding of Children," Ernest Holt, Appleton.
"The Home and Family," Kinne and Cooley, Macmillan.
THE CITIZEN***
SYMBOL—EIGHT-POINTED STAR
1. Who is responsible for the government of your country?
2. Whose business is it to see that the laws are enforced?
3. How can you help make your Government better?
4. Give the best definition you know of our Government.
5. What are the principal qualifications for the vote in your State?
6. a. Who is a citizen? b. How can a person not a citizen become a citizen? c. What is the advantage of being a citizen?
7. Who makes the law for you in your State?
8. What part will you have in making that law?
9. What are the duties of the President of the United States and of each of his Cabinet?
10. Name five things on which the comfort and welfare of your family depend, which are controlled by your Government.
11. a. What is meant by a secret ballot? b. How can anyone tell how you vote?
12. What is the difference between registering to vote and enrolling in a political party?
13. If you enroll in a political party must you vote the straight ticket of that party?
REFERENCES:
"The Woman Movement in America," McClurg and Co., Chicago.
"The Woman Voter's Manual," Forman and Shuler, Century Co., 1918.
"Democracy in Reconstruction," Houghton Mifflin, 1919. Cleveland and Schafer.
"History of Politics," Edward Jenks, Macmillan Co.
"The Subjection of Women," John Stuart Mill, Frederick Stokes.
"Your Vote and How to Use It," Mrs. Raymond Brown, Harper Bros.
"The Story of a Pioneer," Anna Howard Shaw.
"American Commonwealth," James Bryce.
"Promised Land," Mary Antin, Houghton Mifflin.
"Land of Fair Play," Geoffrey Parsons, Scribner.
"Making of an American," J. A. Rils, Macmillan.
"Peace and Patriotism," E. S. Smith, Lothrop, Lee and Shepard.
"The Children in the Shadow," Ernest Kent Coulter, McBride Nest and Co.
"American Citizenship," Charles and Mary Beard, Macmillan.[505]
COOK
SYMBOL—GRIDIRON
This test is based on the thorough knowledge of the article on "Cooking" in the handbook. It may be taken in sections. A certificate may be presented from a Domestic Science teacher, or from the mother if the Captain knows her and can testify to her competency to judge.
1. Build and regulate the fire in a coal or wood stove, or if a gas range is used know how to regulate the heat in the oven, broiler and top.
2. What does it mean to boil a food? To broil? To bake? Why is it not advisable to fry food?
3. How many cupfuls make a quart? How many tablespoonfuls to a cup? Teaspoonfuls to a tablespoon?
4. Be able to cook two kinds of cereal.
5. Be able to make tea, coffee and cocoa properly.
6. Be able to cook a dried and a fresh fruit.
7. Be able to cook three common vegetables in two ways.
8. Be able to prepare two kinds of salad. How are salads kept crisp?
9. Know the difference in food value between whole milk and skimmed milk.
10. Be able to boil or coddle or poach eggs properly.
11. Be able to select meat and prepare the cuts for broiling, roasting and stewing OR be able to clean, dress and cook a fowl.
12. Be able to make two kinds of quick bread, such as biscuits or muffins.
13. Be able to plan menus for one day, choosing at least three dishes in which left-overs may be utilized.
REFERENCES:
"The Junior Cook Book," Girl Scout Edition, Clara Ingram, Barse and Hopkins.
"Fun of Cooking," C. F. Benton, Century.
"Boston Cooking School Cook Book," Little.
"Hot Weather Dishes," S. T. Rorer, Arnold and Co.
"Food and Health," Helen Kinne and Anna M. Cooley, Macmillan.
CRAFTSMAN
SYMBOL—PRIMITIVE DECORATIVE DESIGN
To earn this badge a Girl Scout must qualify in at least one of the following and must read at least one general reference:
1. Tie-dying: Make a tie-dyed scarf using two kinds of
tying.
Reference: "Dyes and Dyeing," Charles E. Pellew, McBride.
"Industrial and Applied Art Books, Book 6," Bush.
2. Block Printing: Make an original design for a block print unit using a flower or bird motif. Apply to a bag or collar in one color using oil paint or dyes.
3. Stencilling: Make an original stencil design for a border, use flower, bird, boat or tree motif. Apply in two colors to a bag, collar or scarf using oil paint or dyes.
4. Crochet, Cross-stitch, Darning: Make an original border design on square paper using any two geometric units, or a conventional flower or animal form. Apply the design to a towel in crochet, cross-stitch or darning.
Reference: "Cross-stitch Patterns," Dorothy Bradford, "Industrial Art Text Books, Book 6," "Modern Priscilla," Snow.
6. Weaving, Baskets: Design a basket shape with its widest dimension not less than six inches, and make the basket of raffia over a reed or cord foundation. Use eight stitch or lazy squaw.
Reference: "How To Make Baskets," White—"Practical Basketry," McKay. "Inexpensive Basketry," Marten. "Raffia and Reed Weaving," Knapp.
Weaving Wool: Weave a girdle, a hat band, or a dress ornament use a simple striped or geometric design, in three or more colors.
Reference: "Hand Weaving," Dorothy Bradford. "Hand-loom Weaving," Todd.
Weaving Beads: Design and weave a bead chain or a bead band for trimming: use two or more colors.
7.
Appliqué: Design an appliqué unit in a 7-inch square that might be applied to a pin cushion top, a bag or a square for a patchwork quilt. Use geometric units or conventional flower or bird forms suggested by cretonnes. Work out in cotton materials using two tones of one color or closely related colors, as brown and orange; grey and violet.
8. Pottery: Design an original shape for a bowl, vase or paper weight, and model shape in clay.
Reference: "The Potter's Craft," Binns—"Pottery," Cox. "Industrial Work for the Middle Grades," E. Z. Worst.
9. Posters: Design a Girl Scout poster that will illustrate some law or activity. Poster to be at least 9×12 inches and to consist of a simple illustration and not less than three words of lettering. Finish in crayon, water color, pen and ink, or tempera.
Reference: "School Arts Magazine," Jan. 1920. "Poster Magazine."
10. China Painting: Make a conventional design for a border that can be used on a plate, bowl, or cup and saucer. Work out on the object in one color in a tinted background.
References: Keramic Studio—any number.
11. Decoration: Make an original design for a box top or a tray center adapting units found in cretonnes. Apply to the object using enamel paints and in a color scheme suggested by the same or another cretonne.
GENERAL REFERENCE BOOKS:
Read regularly: School Arts Magazine, Davis Press. Art Crafts for Beginners, Frank G. Sanford, Century; Handicraft for Girls, McGloughlin—See also: "Wood Carving," P. Hasbruck, McKay.[507]
CYCLIST
SYMBOL—WHEEL
1. Own a bicycle, and care for it, cleaning, oiling, and making minor repairs, readjusting chain, bars and seat.
2. Be able to mend a tire.
3.
Demonstratethe use of a road map.
4. Demonstrate leading another bicycle while riding.
5. Know the laws of the road, right of way, lighting and so forth.
6. Make satisfactory report to Captain, of a bicycle Scouting expedition as to the condition of a road with camping site for an overnight hike.
7. Pledge the bicycle to the Government in time of need.
REFERENCES:
"American Girl's Handibook," L. Beard, Scribner.
"For Playground, Field and Forest," D. C. Beard, Scribner.
DAIRY MAID
SYMBOL—MILKING STOOL
1. Take entire care of a cow and the milk of one cow for one month, keeping a record of quantity of each milking.
2. Make butter at four different times, and submit statement of amount made and of the process followed in making.
3. Make pot cheese; give method.
4. Name four breeds of cows. How can they be distinguished? Which breed gives the most milk? Which breed gives the richest milk?
5. What are the rules for feeding, watering and pasturing cows? What feed is best for cows? What care should be given cows to keep them in perfect condition? What diseases must be guarded against in cows? Why is it so imperative to have a cow barn, all implements, workers and cows
scrupulouslyclean?
6. Of what is milk composed? How is cream separated from milk? Name two processes and explain each. How and why should milk be strained and cooled before being bottled or canned?
REFERENCES:
"Stories of Industry," Vol. 2, A. Chase, Educational Pub. Co.
"How the World is Fed," F. G. Carpenter, American Book Co.
"Foods and their uses," F. G. Carpenter, Scribner.[508]
DANCER
SYMBOL—FOOT IN SLIPPER
This test is being revised. Following is a Temporary ruling (July 1922).
1. Demonstrate three folk dances.
2. Demonstrate three modern social dances in correct form. See rules of American Association of Dancing Masters. OR
3. Where social dancing is not given approval by parents, three additional folk dances may be substituted.
REFERENCES:
"Dances of the People," Elizabeth Burchenal, Schirmer.
"Folk Dances and Singing Games," Elizabeth Burchenal, Schirmer.
"Social Games and Group Dances," J. C. Elsom, Lippincott.
"Country Dance Book," C. J. Sharp, Novello.
DRESSMAKER
SYMBOL—SCISSORS
1. Must hold Needlewoman's Badge.
2. Must know the bias, selvage, and straight width of goods.
3. Must cut and make a garment from a pattern following all rules and directions given. It is suggested that two girls work together on this.
4. Be able to clean, oil and use a sewing machine.
5. Demonstrate on other persons the way to measure for length of skirt, length of sleeve, length from neck to waist line. Sew on hooks and eyes so they will not show. Hang a skirt, make a placket, put skirt on belt. Skirt must be hemmed evenly and hang evenly.
6. Know what to do if a waist is too long from the neck to the waist line and does not fit well.
REFERENCES:
"Complete Dressmaker," C. E. Laughlin, Appleton.
"The Dress You Wear and How to Make It," M. J. Rhoe, Putnam.
"The Dressmaker," Butterick Publishing Co.
"Clothing and Health," Helen Kinne and Anna M. Cooley, Macmillan.
"Clothing: Choice, Care, Cost," Mary Schenet Woolman, Lippincott 1920.[509]
DRUMMER
SYMBOL—DRUM AND STICKS
Be prepared to play all of the following taps and steps and in order further to show proficiency on the drum, perform any feat selected.
1. "Roll off"; 2. Flam (right and left hand); 3. Five-stroke roll; 4. Seven-stroke roll; 5. "Taps" step; 6. Six-eight step; 7. two-four step; 8. Single Stroke.
REFERENCES:
"Recollections of a Drummer Boy," H. M. Kieffer, Houghton Mifflin
ECONOMIST
SYMBOL—BEE
A Girl Scout must qualify for 1 and 2, and either 3 or 4.
1. Offer record of ten per cent. savings from earnings or allowance for three months.
Show card for Postal Savings, or a Savings Bank Account.
2. Show record from parent or guardian that she has:
a. Darned stockings.
b. Keep shoes shined and repaired.
c. Not used safety pins or other makeshift for buttons, hooks, hems of skirts, belts, etc.
d. Kept clothes mended and cleansed from small spots.
3. For girls who have the spending of their money, either in allowance or earnings, show by character of shoes, stockings and gloves, hair-ribbons, handkerchiefs and other accessories that they know how to select them for wearing qualities and how to keep them in repair.
4. Show record of one week's buying and menus with plans for using food economically, such as left-overs, cheap but nourishing cuts of meat, butter substitutes, thrifty use of milk such as sour, skimmed or powdered milk, and so forth.
REFERENCES:
"Scout Law in Practice," A. A. Carey, Little.
"Thrift and Conservation," A. H. Chamberlain, Lippincott.[510]
ELECTRICIAN
SYMBOL—LIGHTNING
1. Explain the use of magnets for attraction and repulsion.
2. Describe the use of electricity for forming electro-magnets and their use in: Electric bell; Telegraph; Telephone.
3. What is meant by low and high voltage in electric current? Describe the use of current in: Dry cell; Storage Battery; Dynamo.
4. a. Describe how current is sent through resistance wire resulting in heat and light, in case of Electric lights, Electric stoves, toasters, flat irons, etc., and
b. How it is converted into working energy in Motors.
5. Describe fuses and their use, and how to
replacea burnt-out fuse.
6. Connect two batteries in series with a bell and push button.
7. Demonstrate methods of rescuing a person in contact with live wires, and of resuscitating a person insensible from shock.
8. Know how electricity is used as motive power for street cars, trains, and automobiles.
9. Know the proper way to connect electric appliances such as flat irons, toasters, etc.
REFERENCES:
"Electricity in Every Day Use," J. F. Woodfull, Doubleday Page.
"How to Understand Electrical Work," W. H. Onken, Harper.
"Harper's Electricity Book for Boys," J. H. Adams, Harper.
"Electricity for Young People," Tudor Jenks, Stokes.
"Heroes of Progress in America," Charles Morris, Lippincott.
FARMER
SYMBOL—SICKLE
This badge is given for proficiency in general farming. A Scout farmer may have her chief interest in rearing animals but she should know something about the main business of the farmer which is tilling the soil. Therefore, the Scout must fulfill four requirements: either A or B under I, and II, III, and IV.[511]
  I. A. Animal Care
A Scout must have reared successfully one of the following:
a) A brood of at least 12 chickens under hen or with incubator.
b) A flock of at least 12 pigeons, 12 ducks, 12 geese or 12 guinea-fowl.
c) A family of rabbits or guinea pigs.
d) A calf, a colt, or a pig.
    A certificate as to the condition of the animals must be presented, made by some competent judge who has seen them. Wherever possible a chart should be made by the Scout, showing the schedule of care followed, including feeding, and notes on the development of the animals.
    AND she must also have planted and cultivated a small vegetable garden like the one described in the Handbook, in the Section "The Girl Scout's Own Garden" OR
B.Vegetable raising
    A Scout may make her main interest the raising of some sort of vegetable or fruit and may do one of the following:
1. Plant, cultivate and gather the crop from
(a) A small truck garden, with at least six vegetables, two berries, and two salads or greens, OR
(b) Where the soil is not suitable for a variety of plants, she may raise a single vegetable, like corn or tomatoes, or tubers.
2. Tend and gather a fruit crop such as apples, peaches, pears, cherries, oranges, or any other tree fruit, OR Cultivate and tend a small vineyard or grape arbor, and gather the grapes, OR
Plant and cultivate and gather the berries from strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, currant or gooseberry plants. Whatever the vegetable or fruit chosen a chart should be made and presented, showing the schedule of digging, planting, sowing and tending, with notes on the time of appearance of the first shoots, the size and condition of the crop and so forth. Any obstacles met and overcome, such as insect pests, drouths or storms should be mentioned. No special size is mentioned for the garden, as the conditions vary so greatly in different parts of the country. The quality of the work, and the knowledge gained is the important thing.
 II. Identify and collect ten common weeds and tell how to get rid of each.
III. Identify ten common insect pests, tell what plant or animal each attacks, and how to get rid of each.
 IV. Describe four different kinds of soil and tell what is best planted in each. Tell what sort of fertilizer should be used in each soil. Explain the value of stable manure.
STANDARD REFERENCES:
Farmers Bulletin, published by the Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. Write for catalogue and select the titles bearing on your special interest. The bulletins are free.
The Beginner's Garden Book by Allen French, Macmillan Co.
Manual of Gardening, L. H. Bailey, Macmillan.
Principles of Agriculture, L. H. Bailey, Macmillan.
Essentials of Agriculture, H. J. Waters, Ginn.[512]
FIRST AIDE***
SYMBOL—RED CROSS IN BLACK CIRCLE
A Girl Scout should know:
1. What to do first in case of emergency.
2. Symptoms and treatment of shock.
3. How and when to apply stimulants.
4. How to put on a sling.
5. How to bandage the head, arm, hand, finger, leg ankle, eye, jaw.
6. What to do for: a. bruises, strains, sprains, dislocations, fractures; b. wounds; c. burns, frost bite, freezing, sunstroke, heat exhaustion; d. drowning, electric shock, gas accidents; e. apoplexy, convulsions; f. snake bite; g. common emergencies such as: 1. cinders in the eye; 2. splinter under the nail; 3. wound from rusty nail; 4. oak and ivy poisoning; 5. insect in the ear.
A Girl Scout should demonstrate:
7. Applying a sterile dressing.
8. Stopping bleeding.
9. Putting on a splint.
10. Making a stretcher from uniform blanket or Scout neckerchief and poles.
11. The Schaefer method of artificial respiration.
REFERENCES:
Section on First Aid in this Handbook.
American Red Cross Abridged Text Books on First Aid, Blakiston.
FLOWER FINDER
SYMBOL—FLOWER
1. To pass this test a Scout must be able to tell the difference between plants and animals and the difference between the two general types of plants.
2. A Scout must also pass either the test for Flowers and Ferns or Trees given below.
A. FLOWERS AND FERNS
1. Make a collection of fifty kinds of wild flowers and ferns and correctly name them or make twenty-five photographs or colored drawings of wild flowers and ferns.
2. Why were the following ferns so named: Christmas Fern, Sensitive Fern, Walkingleaf Fern, Cinnamon Fern, Flowering Fern?
3. Name and describe twenty cultivated plants in your locality.
4. Be able to recognize ten weeds.
5. How can you distinguish Poison Ivy from Virginia Creeper? What part of Pokeweed is poisonous? What part of Jimsonweed is poisonous? Be able to recognize at least one poisonous mushroom.
B. TREES
1. Give examples of the two great groups of trees and distinguish between them.
2. Why is forest conservation important? What are the laws of your State concerning forest conservation?
3. Mention at least three uses of trees.
4. Collect, identify and preserve leaves from twenty-five different species of trees.
5. Mention three trees that have opposite branching and three that have alternate.
6. How do the flower-buds of Flowering Dogwood differ from the leaf-buds? When are the flower-buds formed?
7. The buds of what tree are protected by a natural varnish?
8. Mention one whose outer bud-scales are covered by fine hairs. Can you find a tree that has naked buds?
9. From a Sassafras-tree or from a Tulip-tree collect and preserve leaves of as many shapes as possible.
10. Name five trees in this country which produce edible nuts.
REFERENCES:
A. FLOWERS AND FERNS
"New Manual of Botany," Asa Gray, American Book Co.
"Illustrated Flora of the Northern States and Canada," (three volumes), N. L. Britton, Brown and Addison, Scribner.
"Flower Guide," Chester A. Reed, Doubleday Page.
"Flora of the Southeastern States," John K. Small, published by the author, New York Botanical Garden.
"Flora of the Rocky Mountain Region," P. A. Rydberg, published by the author, New York Botanical Garden.
"State Floras."—
Thereare some excellent State Floras, and in order to keep this list from being too long, it is suggested that the Scout leader write to the Professor of Botany in her State University and ask for the name, author and publisher of the best Flora of her State. Especially is this advisable for those living in sections of the country not covered by the above references.
"Our Native Orchids," William Hamilton Gibson.
"Wild Flower Book for Young People," A. Lounsberry, Stokes.
"Field Book of American Wild Flowers," F. S. Matthews, Putnam.
"Emerald Story Book," A. M. Skinner, Duffield.
"Mushrooms," George F. Atkinson, Henry Holt Co., (See Handbook, "Scouting for Girls," Section on Woodcraft.)
B. TREES
REFERENCES:
"Field Book of American Trees and Shrubs," F. S. Matthews, Putnam.
"Trees of the Northern United States," Austin C. Apgar, American Book Co.
"Manual of Trees of North America," Charles S. Sargent, Houghton Mifflin Co.
"Handbook of the Trees of United States and Canada," Romeyn B. Hough,
publishedby the author, Lowville, N. Y.
"Trees in Winter," A. F. Blakeslee, and C. D. Jarvis, Macmillan Co.
"The Book of Forestry," F. F. Moon, Appleton.[514]
GARDENER
SYMBOL—TROWEL
The test may well be worked for by a patrol or even a troop who can share expenses for tools, and cultivate together a larger plot of ground than would be possible for any one girl. Arrangements may frequently be made through the school garden authorities.
Alternate: For Scouts already members of the Girls' Garden and Canning Club throughout the country, a duplicate of their reports, sent in for their season's work, to the State agricultural agents, or agricultural colleges, in cooperation with the Department of Agriculture of the United States, may be submitted as their test material for this badge, in place of the Test given.
1. What are the necessary things to be considered before starting a garden? List them in the correct order.
2. What exposure is best for the garden? Why? At what season of the year is it best to prepare the soil? What care should be given garden tools?
3. Why is it necessary to fertilize the soil for a garden? What kind of fertilizer will you use in your garden, and why?
4. Do all seeds germinate? What precautions must be taken when purchasing seed? During what month should seed be sown in the ground in your locality? What are the rules for sowing seed as regards depth?
5. What does it mean to thin out and to transplant? When and why are both done?
6. What does it mean to cultivate? Why is it very important? How is it best done? What should be done with pulled weeds?
7. When is the proper time of day to water a garden? Is moistening the surface of the ground sufficient? If not, why not?
8. Name five garden pests common in your locality and tell how to eradicate them. Name three garden friends and tell what they do.
9. At what time of day is it best to pick flowers and vegetables? Mention two things to be considered in both cases.
10. What are tender and hardy plants? Herbaceous plants, annuals, perennials and biennials? Bulbs and tubers?
11. Select a garden site, or if space is lacking use boxes, barrels, window boxes, tubs and so forth; prepare the soil, choose the seed of not less than six flowers, and six vegetables that will grow well in the soil and climate in which they are planted; take entire care of the garden and bring to blossom and fruit at least 75 per cent. of the seed planted. Keep and submit a record of the garden, including size, time and money spent, dates of planting, blooming, and gathering of vegetables, or colors of flowers, and so forth.
REFERENCES:
"Harper's Book for Young Gardeners," A. H. Verill, Harper.
"Beginner's Garden Book," Allen French, Macmillan.
"Home Vegetable Gardening from A to Z," Adolph Krulm, Doubleday.
"Suburban Gardens," Grace Tabor, Outing Publishing Co.
"The Vegetable Garden," R. L. Watts, Outing Publishing Co.[515]
HANDY-WOMAN
SYMBOL—HAMMER
1. Know how to mend, temporarily with soap, a small leak in a water or gas pipe.
2. Know how to turn off the water or gas supply for the house and whom to notify in case of accident, OR
Know what to do to thaw out frozen water pipes, OR
Be able to put on a washer on a faucet, OR
Cover a hot water boiler neatly and securely to conserve the heat, using newspaper and string.
3. Know the use of and how to use a wrench and pliers.
4. Demonstrate the way to use a hammer, screw-driver, awl, saw can-opener, corkscrew.
5. Locate by sounding, an upright in a plaster wall, and know why and when this is necessary to be done.
6. Put up a shelf using brackets, strips of wood or both and know under what conditions to use either.
7. Be able to put up hooks for clothes or other articles and properly space them.
8. Be able to measure for and put up a rod in a clothes closet, OR
Be able to repair the spring in a window shade and tack the shade on the roller, OR
Know how to keep clean and care for window and door screens.
9. Must wrap, tie securely and neatly, and label a parcel for delivery by express or parcel post.
10. Be able to sharpen knives using either a grindstone, whetstone, the edge of an iron stove, or another knife.
11. Clean, trim and fill an oil lamp, or put on a gas mantle, OR Clean, oil and know how to repair the belt of a sewing machine, OR Lay a fire in a fireplace and tell what to do with the ashes.
12. Choose a wall space for a picture, measure for the wire, fasten the wire to the picture frame and give the rule concerning height for hanging pictures.
13. State how brooms, dry mops, dustpans, and brushes should be placed when not in use, and be able to wash brushes and place them properly for drying.
REFERENCES:
"What a Girl Can Make and Do," Lina Beard, Scribner.
"Harper's Handy Book for Girls," A. P. Paret, Harper.
"Handicraft for Handy Girls," A. N. Hall, Lothrop.
"In the Days of the Guild," L. Lamprey, Stokes.[516]
HEALTH GUARDIAN***
SYMBOL—THE CADUCEUS
  I. Recreation and Health. What is offered to the public in the town you live in, or in that part of the city in which you live, in the way of Play Grounds, Gymnasiums, Baths, Skating Rinks, Tennis Courts, Golf Links, Water Sports?
    If there is a public park in or near the town; what privileges does it offer, especially for young people? Is it well taken care of? Well patronized?
    Discuss briefly why you think the Government should provide these things and what results may be expected when it does not supply them. How does the lack of them affect the grown people of a town, in the end?
II. Special Health Facilities in your Locality.
1. What is the rule as to registering births? What is the advantage of this? What is the infant mortality rate?
Of what diseases should the local authorities be notified?
What diseases must be quarantined? Isolated? Posted? Reported?
2. Food Supplies. What are milk stations? Does your community control the marketing of milk to any degree? Why is the milk question so important?
Are there any laws for your bakeries?
What are the regulations as to the storage and protection of meat in local markets?
3. Housing. If three families are willing to live in three rooms in your town, may they do so?
Is there anything to prevent your erecting a building of any size and material you wish in any place?
4. Medical Institutions. Is there a public hospital in your town? Who has a right to use it? Who pays for it?
Is there a public clinic? Why should there be?
Is there a public laboratory? How would it benefit your community if there were?
Is there a district nurse? How could Girl Scouts assist such a nurse?
5. Schools. Is there any medical inspection in your schools? How did it ever effect you?
Is its work followed up in the home? How are Girl Scouts particularly fitted to help in this?
Is there a school nurse? Why does it pay the community to
employone?
Are luncheons served in your school free, or at low cost? Mention at least two advantages in this and one disadvantage.
Are there school clinics for eyes and teeth? Why are some cities providing such clinics?
6. Baby Hygiene. Is there any place in your town where young or ignorant mothers can ask advice and instruction in the care of infants? State briefly why you think such help would benefit the community in the end.
III. Public Services and Sanitation.
1. Who is responsible for the cleaning of the streets? Dry or wet method used?
2. What are the laws concerning the public collection and disposal of garbage? How much responsibility in this line has your family? Can you do what you please? Is there any practical use for garbage?
3. What is the source of your local water supply? What measures are taken to make and keep it pure?—State some of the results of lack of care in this matter.
4. Why should there be regulations about spitting in public places? Why are common towels and drinking cups forbidden? What are the general rules for prevention and treatment of tuberculosis?
5. Trace the life history of the house fly or filth fly and tell why it is a menace. How may the fly be exterminated? How are mosquitoes dangerous? How may they be eliminated?
REFERENCES:
"Democracy in Reconstruction," Frederick A. Cleveland and Joseph Schafer, Houghton Mifflin.
"A Manual for Health Officers," J. Scott MacNutt, John Wiley and Sons.
"House of the Good Neighbor," Esther Lovejoy, Macmillan.
"Community Civics," J. Field, Macmillan.
"Town and City," F. G. Jewett, Ginn and Co.
"Good Citizenship," J. Richman, American Book Co.
"Healthy Living," Charles E. Winslow, Merrill Co.
HEALTH WINNER
SYMBOL—THE CADUCEUS IN TREFOIL
I. To earn this badge a Girl Scout must for three months pay attention to those conditions upon which health depends. She should keep a Health Record like that shown in the Handbook, which must cover at least the following points:
1. Position of body: Show improvement in posture.
2. Exercise (a) Walk a mile briskly or walk steadily and vigorously for fifteen minutes, or take some other active and vigorous outdoor exercise for at least thirty minutes. OR in case of bad weather, (b) Do setting-up exercises as given in Handbook every day. At least twenty minutes should be spent on these, either at one time, or ten minutes night and morning. To make this point will require a record of compliance for at least seventy-five days in three months.
3. Rest. (a) Go to bed early. Be in bed by at least 9:30 and sleep from eight to ten hours. Do not go to parties, the theatre, movies or any other late entertainment on nights before school or work.
4. Supply needs for Air, Water and Food in the right way:
(a) Sleep with window open.
(b) Drink at least six glasses of water during the day, between meals; taking one before breakfast, two between breakfast and lunch, two between lunch and dinner, and one before going to bed.
(c) Eat no sweets, candy, cake or ice cream except as dessert after meals.
5. Keep Clean:
(a) Have a bowel movement at least once every day, preferably immediately after breakfast or the last thing at night.
(b) Wash hands after going to the toilet, and before eating. Take a daily tub, shower or sponge bath, or rub down with a rough towel every day; and take a full bath of some sort at least twice a week.
(c) Brush teeth twice a day: after breakfast and just before bed.
(d) Wash hair at least once a month, and brush well every day.
II. In addition to doing the things that make for health, the Girl Scout must know the answers to the following questions:
1. What is the best way to care for your teeth?
2. Why is care for the eyes especially necessary? How are the eyes rested? What are the points to remember about light for work?
3. What is the difference in effect between a hot and cold bath?
4. How can you care for your feet on a hike so that they will not become blistered or over-tired?
REFERENCES:
"Good Health," F. G. Jewett, Ginn and Co.
"How to Get Strong and How to Stay So," William Blaikie, Harper.
"Keeping Physically Fit," Wm. J. Cromie, Macmillan.
"Exercise and Health," Woods Hutcheson, Outing Pub. Co.
"Handbook of Health and Nursing," American School of Home Economics, Chicago.
"Food and Health," Helen Kinne and Anna M. Cooley, Macmillan.
"Healthy Living," Chas. E. Winslow, Chas E. Merrill Co.
HOMEMAKER
SYMBOL—CROSSED KEYS
1. In planning a house and choosing a site for it what things should be considered?
2. Draw the floor plan of an imaginary house or apartment to be built in your locality for a family of four, and list the furnishings for each room.
3. Choose a system for heating and state reasons for choice.
4. How will water be furnished? What precautions should always be taken about the water supply and why?
5. How will the house be lighted? How will it be ventilated?
6. State how the walls and floors will be finished and why?
7. Describe the cook stove and the ice box; tell why they were selected and the best way to keep them clean.
8. List the utensils used in keeping the house clean.
9. State why it is particularly necessary to keep the cellar, closets, cupboards, wash basins, toilets, sinks, clean. Give ways of cleaning each.
10. State the proper way to prepare dishes for washing and the order in which silver, glass, table
andkitchen dishes should be washed.
11. How should rugs, mattresses, pillows, upholstered furniture, paper walls, and windows be cleaned?
12. How should winter clothes and blankets be stored during the summer? What should be done with soiled laundry prior to washing?
13. What is the most economical way to buy flour, sugar, cereals, butter and vegetables? How should they be kept in the house?
14. What is the law in your community concerning the disposition of trash, ashes and garbage? How will you care for these things in the house? If there is no law what will you do with them and why?
15. Under what conditions do germs thrive and vermin infest? How can both be kept away?
16. Plan the work in your house for one week giving the daily schedule and covering all necessary points.
17. Tell how to make and use a fireless cooker. Explain what it is good for.
18. Take care of your own bedroom for one month. Report just what you do and how long it takes.
REFERENCES:
"Housewifery," L. Ray Balderston, Lippincott.
"The Home and the Family," Helen Kinne and Anna Cooley, The Macmillan Co.
"Foods and Household Management," Helen Kinne and Anna Cooley, Macmillan.
"Shelter and Clothing," Helen Kinne and Anna Cooley, Macmillan.
"Feeding the Family," M. S. Rose, Macmillan.
"Handbook of Food and Diet," American School of Home Economics, Chicago.
MAGAZINES:
"The House Beautiful," "Ladies Home Journal," "Delineator," "Good Housekeeping."
HOME NURSE***
SYMBOL—GREEN CROSS
1. Describe care of the room under following points:
(a) Ventilation heat and sun; (b) Character and amount of furniture; (c) Cleanliness and order; (d) Daily routine; (e) General "atmosphere."
2. Demonstrate bed making with patient in bed. Bed must be made in fifteen minutes.
3. (a) Show how to help a patient in the use of a bedpan. (b) Care of utensils, dishes, linen and their disinfection.
4. Bodily care of patient. Know all the following and be able to demonstrate any two points asked for:
(a) Bathing; (b) Rubbing; (c) Changing of body linen; (d) Combing hair; (e) Lifting and changing position; (f) Arranging of supports; (g) Temperature, pulse and respiration; (h) Feeding when helpless.
5. Local applications, hot and cold, (fomentations, compresses etc.) (Demonstrate at least one point).
6. Common household remedies and their use: castor oil, soda, olive oil, epsom salts, aromatic spirits of ammonia.
7. First treatment of some common household emergencies, cramps, earache, headache, cold, chills, choking, nosebleed, and fainting.
8. How to give an enema.
9. Proper food for invalids and serving it. Be able to prepare and serve five of the following. Two foods must be shown to examiner and three may be certified to by mother or other responsible person.
1. Cereal, as oatmeal, gruel; cereal water, as barley water.
2. Toast, toast water, milk toast, cream toast.
3. Plain albumen, albuminized water, albuminized milk.
4. Eggnog, soft cooked egg, poached egg.
5. Pasteurized milk, junket, custard.
6. Beef, mutton, chicken, clam or oyster broth.
7. Fruit beverage, stewed dried fruit, baked apple.
8. Gelatin jellies, chicken jelly.
9. Tea, coffee, cocoa.
REFERENCES:
"Home Hygiene and Care of the Sick." Red Cross Text by Jane A. Delano, R. N. Revised by Anne H. Strong, R. N., Blakiston, Philadelphia, 1922.
"What to do Before the Doctor Comes," Frieda E. Lippert, Lippincott.
"Home Nurses Handbook of Practical Nursing," C. A. Aikens, Saunders.
"Home Nursing," Louisa C. Lippitt, World Book Co.
HORSEWOMAN
SYMBOL—STIRRUP
1. Demonstrate saddling and bridling a saddle horse.
2. Demonstrate riding at a walk, trot and gallop.
3. Demonstrate harnessing correctly in single harness.
4. Demonstrate driving in single harness.
5. What are the rules of the road as to turning out?
6. What are the rules for feeding and watering a horse, and how do these vary according to conditions?
7. What implements are used for grooming a horse? Show how they should be used.
8. Hitch a horse, using the best knot for that purpose.
9. Know principal causes of and how to detect and how to remedy lameness and sore back.
10. Know how to detect and remove a stone from the foot.
11. Know the principal points of a horse, and the different parts of the harness.
REFERENCES:
"Riding and Driving for Women," B. Beach, Scribner.
"Horsemanship," C. C. Fraser.
HOSTESS
SYMBOL—CUP AND SAUCER
1. Demonstrate receiving, introducing and bidding guests goodbye.
2. Write notes of invitation for a luncheon, dinner party, and write a letter inviting a friend to make a visit.
3. Give an out of door party or picnic planning entertainment, and prepare and serve refreshments, OR
Demonstrate ability to plan for an indoor party, arranging the rooms, a place for wraps, entertainment of guests, serving of refreshments.
4. Set a table and entertain guests for lunch or dinner or afternoon tea and demonstrate the duties of a hostess who has no maid, or one who has a maid, to serve.
5. What are the duties of a hostess when entertaining a house guest for a few days or more?
GUESTS:
6. When entertained as a house guest what are some of the necessary things to be remembered?
7. What is a "bread and butter" letter? Write one.
8. When invited to a party, luncheon, dinner, or to make a visit, how should the invitations be acknowledged? Write at least two letters to cover the question.
9. What are the duties of a caller, dinner or party guest as concerns time of arrival, length of stay and leaving?
REFERENCES:
"Everyday Manners, for American Boys and Girls," by the Faculty of the South Philadelphia High School for Girls, Macmillan, 1922.
"Dame Courtesy's Book of Novel Entertainments," E. H. Glover, McClurg.
"Hostess of Today," L. H. Larned, Scribner.
"Bright Ideas for Entertaining," H. B. Linscott, Jacobs.
INTERPRETER
SYMBOL—UNITED STATES ARMY EMBLEM
1. Show ability to converse in a language other than English.
2. Translate quickly and accurately a conversation in a foreign language into English, and English into a foreign language.
3. Be able to write a simple letter in a language other than one's own, subject to be given by examiner.
4. Read a passage from a book or newspaper written in a language other than one's own.
5. Write a clear intelligible letter in a foreign language.
JOURNALIST****
SYMBOL—BOTTLE AND PEN
1. Know how a newspaper is made, its different departments, functions of its staff, how the local news is gathered, how the news of the world is gathered and disseminated—Inquire at newspaper office.
2. What is a news item?
3. What is an editorial?
4. Describe briefly the three important kinds of type-setting used today.
5. Write two articles, not to exceed five hundred words each, on events that come within the observation of the Scouts. For instance give the school athletic events or describe an entertainment for Scouts in church or school or rally.
6. Write some special story about Scoutcraft such as a hike or camping experience.
REFERENCES:
"Newspaper," G. B. Dibble, Holt.
"Handbook of Journalism," N. C. Fowler, Sully.
LAUNDRESS
SYMBOL—FLAT IRON
1. What elements are needed to clean soiled clothes?
2. Show a blouse that you have starched and folded, OR
Show a skirt and coat you have pressed.
3. How is starch made? How is it prepared for use?
4. What is soap? How is it made? What is soap powder?
5. How can you soften hard water? How are a ringer and a mangle used?
6. Name steps to take in washing colored garments.
7. Should table linen be starched? Why?
8. Why do we run clothes through blueing water? What is blueing? How made?
9. Know the different kinds of irons and how to take care of irons.
10. How to remove stains; ink, fruit, rust, grass, cocoa and grease. Why must stains be removed before laundering?
11. What clothes should be boiled to make them clean? How are flannels washed? What should be done to clothes after drying before they are ironed?
REFERENCES:
"Saturday Mornings," C. B. Burrell, Dana Estes.
"First Aid to the Young Housekeeper," C. T. Herrick, Scribner.
"Guide to Laundry Work," M. D. Chambers, Boston Cooking School.
"Approved Methods for Home Laundry," Mary Beals Vail, B. S., Proctor Gamble Co.
MILLINER
SYMBOL—BONNET
1. Renovate a hat by removing, cleaning and pressing all trimmings and the lining, turn or clean the hat and replace trimmings and lining.
2. Trim a felt hat and make and sew in the lining.
3. Make a gingham, cretonne or straw hat using a wire frame.
4. What is felt and how is it made into hats?
5. What is straw and how is it prepared for millinery purposes?
6. How is straw braid for hats sold?
7. What is meant by "a hand made hat?"
8. Can the shape of a felt or straw hat be materially changed? if so by what process?
9. What kind of thread is best for sewing trimming on to a hat?
10. How is the head measured for ascertaining the head size for a hat?
REFERENCES:
"Art of Millinery," Anna Ben Yusef, Millinery Trade Pub. Co.
MOTORIST****
SYMBOL—A WINGED WHEEL
To qualify for this badge a Scout must be at least eighteen, and must pass the examination which was required for the Motor Corps of the National League for Women's Service.
This includes:
1. A certificate of health from a physician.
2. Possessing the First Aide Badge.
3. A diploma from a training course for motorists, such as that run by the Y. M. C. A., with a mark of at least 85 per cent.
4. A driver's license from her State, signed by the Secretary of State.
5. Taking the oath of allegiance.
REFERENCE:
"The Gasoline Automobile," by Hobbs, Elliott and Consoliver, McGraw, Hill Book Co.
Putnam's Automobile Handbook, H. C. Brokaw, Putnam.
MUSICIAN
SYMBOL—HARP
For pianist, violinist, cellist or singer.
1. Play or sing a scale and know its composition.
2. Write a scale in both the treble and bass clef.
3. Know a half-tone, whole tone, a third, fifth and octave.
4. Be able to distinguish a march from a waltz, and give the time of each.
5. What is a quarter, half and whole note, draw symbols.
6. Name five great composers and one composition of each, including an opera, a piano composition, a song. Two of the foregoing must be American.
7. Play or sing from memory three verses of the Star Spangled Banner. The Battle Hymn of the Republic and America.
8. Play or sing correctly from memory one piece of good music.
9. For instrumentalist: Be able to play at sight a moderately difficult piece and explain all signs and terms in it.
For singers: Show with baton how to lead a group in singing compositions written in 3/4 and 4/4 time.
10. What is an orchestra: Name at least five instruments in an orchestra.
REFERENCES:
"Art of the Singer," W. T. Henderson, Scribner.
"How to Listen to Music," H. E. Krehbiel, Scribner.
"Orchestral Instruments and What They Do," D. G. Mason, Novello.
NEEDLEWOMAN
SYMBOL—SPOOL, THREAD AND NEEDLE
1. Know how to run a seam, overcast, roll and whip, hem, tuck, gather, bind, make a French seam, make buttonhole, sew on buttons, hooks and eyes, darn and patch. Submit samples of each.
2. Show the difference between "straight" and "on the bias," and how to make both.
3. Know the difference between linen, cotton and woolen, and pick out samples of each.
4. Know how thread, silk and needles are numbered and what the numbers indicate.
5. Know how to measure and plan fullness for edging or lace.
6. Know how to lay a pattern on cloth, cut out a simple article of wearing apparel and make same. Use this article to demonstrate as much of question 1 as possible.
7. Knit, either a muffler, sweater or baby's jacket and cap and crochet one yard of lace or make a yard of tatting.
8. Hemstitch or scallop a towel or bureau scarf and work an initial on it in cross stitch.
REFERENCES:
"Complete Dressmaker," C. E. Laughlin, Appleton.
"Art in Needlework," S. F. Day, Scribner.
PATHFINDER
SYMBOL—A HAND POINTING
1. Describe the general plan of the city, town or village in which you live, locate the principal shopping, business and residence districts and know how to reach them from any quarter of the city, town or village. Be able to direct a person to the nearest place of worship to which they desire to go, OR
Describe in a general way the township or county in which you live giving the principal roads, naming two of the nearest and largest cities or towns, giving their distance from your residence and telling how to reach them.
2. Know the route of the principal surface car and subway lines, OR
The name of the nearest railroad division to your residence and four of the principal cities or towns through which it passes within a distance of one hundred miles.
3. Know at least three historic points of interest within the limits of your city, town or village, how to get to them and why they are historic, OR
Tell of three things of interest concerning the history of your own community.
4. Know the name and location of the Post Office, Telegraph and Telephone Stations, Public Library, City or Town Hall, one Hospital of good standing, one hotel or inn, three churches, one Protestant, one Catholic, one Synagogue, and the nearest railroad, OR
Know the name, location and distance from your home or village of the nearest Library, Hospital, Church, Post Office, Telegraph and Telephone and Railroad Stations.
5. Know the name and location of three buildings or places in your city, town or village, of interest from a point of beauty either of architecture, decoration or surroundings, OR
Know and locate three places of interest within ten miles of your home, because of beautiful views or surroundings, OR give directions for taking a walk through beautiful woods, lanes or roads.
6. Draw a map of the district around your home covering an area of one quarter square mile, noting streets, schools and other public buildings, fire alarm boxes, at least one public telephone booth, one doctor's office, one drug store, one provision store, and four points of the compass. Draw to scale, OR
Draw a map covering a half square mile of country around your home noting schools and any other public buildings, roads, lanes, points of interest, historic or otherwise, streams, lakes and four cardinal points of the compass. Map must be drawn to scale.
7. Know how to use the fire alarm, how to consult telephone directory, how to call for assistance in case of water leak, accident, burglary, forest fire and how to call the police for any other emergency.
8. Find any of the four cardinal points of the compass by sun or stars, by use of a watch and a cane or stick.
REFERENCES:
Sections in Handbook on "Woodcraft," and "Measurements and Map-making," and publications of local Historical Societies, Guides and Directories.
PHOTOGRAPHER
SYMBOL—CAMERA ON STANDARD
1.
Submitsix good photographs, interior and out of door, taken, developed and printed by self, OR twelve good photographs taken by self including portraits, animals, out of door and indoor subjects.
2. What constitutes a good picture?
3. Give three rules to be followed in taking interiors, portraits and out of door pictures.
4. Name and describe briefly the processes used in photography.
5. Tell what a camera is and name and describe the principal parts of a camera.
6. What is a film? What is a negative?
7. What position in relation to the sun should a photographer take when exposing a film?
8. Should a shutter be operated slowly? If so, why?
9. What causes buildings in a picture to look as if they were falling?
10. What precautions should be taken when reloading a camera and taking out an exposed film?
11. What is an enlargement? How is it made?
12. What are the results of under exposure and over exposure?
13. What are the results of failing to take the proper camera distance, having improper light and allowing the camera to move?
14. If there is more than one method of exposing a film what determines the method to be used?
REFERENCES:
"How to Make Good Pictures," Eastman Kodak Company.
"The Photo Miniature," such numbers as appear to be needed.
"Nature and the Camera," A. R. Dugmore, Doubleday.
"Photography for Young People," T. Jenks, Stokes.
"Why My Photographs Are Bad," C. M. Taylor, Jacobs.
PIONEER***
SYMBOL—AXES
1. Tell four things that must be considered when choosing a camp site.
2. Know how to use a saw, an axe, a hatchet.
3. Know how to select and fell a tree for building or fuel purposes. Know a fork and sapling and their uses.
4. Build or help three others to build a shack suitable for four occupants.
5. Make a latrine, an incinerator, a cache.
6. Make a fireplace for heating and cooking purposes and cook a simple meal over it.
7. Know how to tell the directions of the wind.
8. Know how to mark a trail.
9. Tell what to do to make water safe for drinking if there is any question as to its purity.
REFERENCES:
"Campward Ho!" A Manual for Girl Scout Camps, National Headquarters, Girl Scouts, Inc.
"Camping and Woodcraft," Horace Kephart, Macmillan.
"On the Trail," L. Beard, Scribner.
"Vacation Camps for Girls," Jeannette Marks, D. Appleton.
ROCK TAPPER[9]
SYMBOL—PICK AND SHOVEL
1. Collect and correctly identify ten rocks found among the glacial boulders.
2. Make photograph or make sketch of glacial boulders.
3. Collect two or three scratched glaciated pebbles or cobblestones in the drift.
4. Make a sketch or photograph of an exposed section of glaciated or scratched bed-rock and note as accurately as you can the direction of the scratches or grooves.
REFERENCES:
"The Story of Our Continent," N. S. Shaler, Ginn and Co.
"The Great Ice Age and Its Relation to the Antiquity of Man," D. Appleton and Co.
"A Text Book of Geology," portion of Chapter XXV entitled "The Glacial Epoch in North America,"—D. Appleton and Co.
"Physiography for High School," Chapter V entitled, "The Work of Snow and Ice," Henry Holt and Co.
"An Introduction to Physical Geography," Chapter VI entitled, "Glaciers," D. Appleton, or any other good text-book of geology or physical geography.
"Travels in Alaska," John Muir.
SAILOR***
SYMBOL—ANCHOR
Qualify for questions under A, one to eleven, and one other test on rowboat, sailboat, canoe or motor boat.
A. GENERAL
1. Swim twenty-five yards with clothes and shoes on, or hold the swimming merit badge.
2. Know sixteen points of the compass.
3. Find any one of the four cardinal points of the compass by sun or stars.
4. Know the rules for right of way.
5. Know how to counteract the effect of current, tide and wind.
6. Demonstrate making a landing, coming along side, making fast, pushing off.
7. What is a calm? What is a squall? What are the sky and water conditions that denote the approach of the latter?
8. Why are squalls dangerous?
9. What are the dangers of moving about or standing in a boat?
10. Tie four knots for use in handling a boat. Prepare, tie and throw a life line a distance of 25 feet.
11. Which is the "port" and which the "starboard" side of the boat, and what color lights represent each.
B. ROWBOAT.
1. Demonstrate correct way to step into a rowboat, to boat the oars, feather the oars, turn around, row backward, back water, keep a straight course.
2. Name two types of row boats.
3. Demonstrate rowing alone on a straight course for a period of one-half hour. Keep stroke with another person for the same length of time.
4. Demonstrate sculling or poling.
5. Bail and clean a boat.
6. What does it mean to "trim ship?"
C. SAILBOAT.
1. Demonstrate hoisting a sail, taking in a reef, letting out a reef, steering, sailing close to the wind, before the wind, coming about, coming up into the wind.
2. What is meant by tacking?
3. What is the difference between a keel and centerboard type of boat? Tell the advantage of each.
4. Coil the ropes on a sailboat.
5. Name three different types of sailboats.
D. CANOE.
1. Where and how should a canoe be placed when not in use?
2. Demonstrate putting a canoe into the water, stepping into it, taking it out, and the technique of bow and stern paddling.
3. Overturn, right and get back into a canoe.
4. Name two standard makes of canoes.
5. What does it mean to make a portage?
E. MOTORBOAT.
1. Know how to oil the engine and the best kind of oil with which to oil it.
2. Demonstrate cleaning the engine; cranking the engine.
3. Know how to measure gas in tank, how much gas the tank holds, and how long the engine will run when the tank is full. Know how to judge good gasoline.
4. Why should a motor boat never be left without turning off the gas? State reasons.
5. Be able to rectify trouble with the carburetor.
6. Know proper weight of anchor for boat; how to lower and hoist anchor; how to ground anchor so boat will not drag; know the knot to fasten rope to anchor and rope to boat, and how to throw out anchor.
7. Demonstrate how to coil rope so it will not kink when anchor is thrown out.
8. Know channels and right of way by buoys and lights.
REFERENCES:
"Harper's Boating Book for Boys," C. J. Davis, Harper.
"Boat Sailing," A. J. Kenealy, Outing.
SCRIBE
SYMBOL—OPEN BOOK
1. Submit an original short story, an essay or play or poem.
2. Know three authors of prose and their compositions.
3. Mention the names and some works of three novelists, two essayists, three poets, two dramatists of the present century, at least three of them American.
SIGNALLER
SYMBOL—CROSSED FLAGS
SEMAPHORE
1. Give alphabet correctly in 30 seconds, or less.
2. Give the following abbreviations correctly; AFFIRMATIVE, ACKNOWLEDGE, ATTENTION, ERROR, NEGATIVE, PREPARATORY, ANNULLING, SIGN OF NUMERALS.
3. Send message not previously read, of twenty words, containing three numerals and sent at the rate of 50 letters per minute. Only one error to be allowed. Technique is to be considered and judged.
4. Receive unknown message of twenty words, containing three numerals at the same rate. Two errors to be allowed. Scouts may have someone take message down in writing as they read it, and five minutes in which to rewrite it afterwards.
WIGWAG
1. Give alphabet correctly in two and one half minutes or less.
2. Give numerals up to ten correctly.
3. Send message not previously read, of twenty words, containing three numerals, at the rate of ten letters per minute. Only one error allowed; technique and regularity to be considered and judged.
4. Receive unknown message of twenty words, containing three numerals, to be given at the rate of 10 letters per minute—Two errors to be allowed. Conditions for receiving, the same as in Semaphore.
BUZZER
GENERAL SERVICE CODE
1. Send message of twenty words, not previously read, at the rate of ten letters per minute. Two errors allowed.
2. Receive unknown message of twenty words to be given at the same rate. Two errors allowed. Scouts to be allowed five minutes in which to rewrite message, afterwards.
REFERENCES:
"How to Signal by Many Methods," J. Gibson, Gale.
"Cadet Manual," E. Z. Steever, Lippincott.
"Boys' Camp Manual," C. K. Taylor, Century.
"Outdoor Signalling," Elbert Wells, Outing Pub. Co.
STAR GAZER
SYMBOL—STAR GROUP
1. What is meant by the Solar System?
2. Make a diagram showing the relative positions and movements of the earth, sun and moon. What governs the tide? What causes an eclipse? What is a comet, a shooting star, a sun spot?
3. Name the planets in their order from the sun. Which planet is nearest the earth and give its distance?
4. How fast does light travel?
5. What is the difference between planets and fixed stars and name three of the latter.
6. What is a constellation? Name and be able to point out six. Name two constellations which are visible throughout the year.
7. Draw a chart of the Big Dipper and Cassiopeia and the North Star at intervals of three hours through the night using a fixed frame and drawing from the same spot.
8. Observe a sunrise and a sunset.
9. What is the Milky-Way? Give its course through the heavens.
10. What is a morning star? What is an evening star?
11. Explain zenith and nadir.
12. What is the Aurora Borealis? Have you seen it?
REFERENCES:
"Field Book of Stars," W. T. Olcott, Putnam.
"The Book of Stars," R. F. Collins, D. Appleton.
"Around the Year With the Stars," Garrett P. Serviss, Harper.
"Monthly Evening Sky Map," Barrett, 360 Fulton Street, Brooklyn, N. Y.
"The Star People," Gaylord Johnson, Macmillan 1921. Especially for Younger Scouts.
"The Call of the Stars," John, R. Kilfax.
SWIMMER
SYMBOL—LIFE BUOY
The following is identical with the life-saving test for Juniors of the American Red Cross. If the test is given by one of the various examiners of the First Aid Service of the American Red Cross the Scout may wear in addition to the regular Scout Badge the Junior Life Saving Badge. It is recommended that Girl Scout troops work toward the establishment of Junior Life Saving Crews, directions for the formation of which may be secured from any American Red Cross Division.
 I. Pass the swimmer's test for American Red Cross as follows: a. Swim 100 yards, using two or more strokes. b. Dive properly from a take-off. c. Swim on back 50 feet. d. Retrieve objects at reasonable depth from surface (at least 8 feet).
II. Life Savers must pass the following test, winning at least 75 points. The value in points for each section of the test is given in parenthesis after it:
1. Carry a person of own weight 10 yards, by: a. Head carry. (10 points). b. Cross Chest Carry. (10 points). c. Hair or two point carry, or repeat cross chest carry. (9 points). d. Tired Swimmer's carry. (5 points).
2. Break three grips, turning after break, bring subject to surface, and start ashore: a. Wrist hold. (8 points). b. Front neck hold (10 points). c. Back neck hold. (10 points).
3. Make surface dive and recover object from bottom. (10 points).
4. Demonstrate the Schaefer method of inducing artificial respiration. (18 points).
5. Disrobe in water from middy blouse, skirt or bloomers, and camp shoes, and then swim one hundred yards, not touching shore from time entering water. (10 points).
TELEGRAPHER
SYMBOL—TELEGRAPH POLE
Either: a. Telegraphy,
1. Send 22 letters per minute using a sounder and American Morse Code.
2. Receive 25 letters per minute and write out the message in long hand or on a typewriter directly from sound.
No mistakes allowed. OR
b. Wireless. Pass examination for lowest grade wireless operator according to U. S. N. regulations.
REFERENCE:
"Harper's Beginning Electricity," D. C. Shafer, Harper.[531]
ZOOLOGIST
SYMBOL—SEAHORSE
 I. To pass this test a Scout must be able to tell in a general way the differences between plants and animals, the different kinds of animals, Invertebrates and Vertebrates, and among the Vertebrates to distinguish between Fishes, Amphibia, Reptiles, Birds and Mammals.
II. She must also pass the test on Mammals and the test on at least one other group: either Invertebrates, Fishes, Amphibia, Reptiles or Birds, (For this see special test under Bird Hunter).
A. MAMMALS
1. Describe and give life history of ten wild mammals personally observed and identified.
2. Name two mammals that kill fruit trees by girdling them.
3. Mention three mammals that destroy the farmer's grain.
4. State game laws of your State which apply to mammals.
5. Name and locate one great game preserve in the United States and mention five game mammals protected there.
B. REPTILES
1. Give the life history of one reptile.
2. Give names of three Turtles that you have identified in the open.
3. What is the only poisonous Lizard in the United States?
4. Name and describe the poisonous Snakes of your State.
C. AMPHIBIANS
1. Describe the life history of the frog or the toad.
2. Describe the wonderful power of changing color shown by the common Tree-frog.
3. What is the difference in the external appearance of a salamander and a lizard?
4. Give a list of five Amphibians that you have identified in the open.
D. FISHES
1. Describe the habits of feeding and egg-laying in one of our native fishes.
2. Mention a common fish that has no scales, one that has very small scales, and one that has comparatively large scales.
3. Name five much-used food fishes of the sea, and five fresh-water food-fishes.
4. What are some necessary characteristics of a game-fish? Mention a well-known salt-water game fish, and two fresh-water ones.
5. Describe the nest of some local fish, giving location, size, etc.
E. INVERTEBRATES
(EITHER of the following)
a. Insects and Spiders
1. How may mosquitoes be exterminated?
2. Collect, preserve and identify ten butterflies, five moths, ten other insects, and three spiders.
3. Describe the habit that certain ants have of caring for plant-lice or aphids which secrete honey-dew.
4. Describe the life-history of one of our solitary wasps. (See "Wasps Social and Solitary," by George W. and Elizabeth G. Peckham; Houghton Mifflin Co.)
5. Describe the life of a hive or colony of honey bees. (See "The Life of the Bee," by Maurice Maeterlinck, Dodd Mead Co.)
b. Sea Shore Life
1. Name five invertebrates used as food and state where they are found.
2. What is the food of the starfish? How are starfish destroyed?
3. Name twenty invertebrates which you have seen and give the locality where they were found.
4. Name five invertebrates that live in the water only and five that burrow in the mud or sand.
5. What invertebrate was eaten by the Indians and its shell used in making wampum? Where have you seen this animal?
GENERAL REFERENCES
A. MAMMALS
"Life-Histories of Northern Animals," 2 vols., Ernest Thompson Seton, Scribner.
"American Animals," Stone, Witmer and Wm. E. Cram, Doubleday Page.
"American Natural History, Vol. I, Mammals," Wm. T. Hornaday, Scribner.
"Squirrels and Other Fur-Bearers," John Burroughs, Houghton, Mifflin.
"Kindred of the Wild," C.G.D. Roberts, Doubleday Page.
"Animals, Their Relation and Use to Man," C.D. Wood, Ginn and Co.
"Popular Natural History," J.G. Wood, Winston.
B. REPTILES
"Reptile Book," Raymond L. Ditmars, Doubleday Page.
"The Poisonous Snakes of North America," Leonhard Stejnegar, Report U. S. National Museum, 1893.
C. AMPHIBIANS
"The Frog Book," Mary Cynthia Dickerson, Doubleday Page.
"Manual of Vertebrates of the Northern United States," David Starr Jordon, A.C. McClurg Pub. Co.
"Nature Study and Life," Clifton F. Hodge, Ginn and Co.
D. FISHES
"American Food and Game Fishes," David Starr Jordan and Barton W. Evermann, Doubleday Page.
"The Care of Home Aquaria," Raymond C. Osburn, New York Zoological Society.
"The Story of the Fishes," James Newton Baskett, D. Appleton and Co.[533]
E. INVERTEBRATES
a. Insects and Spiders
"Butterfly Guide," W. J. Holland, Doubleday Page.—(For beginners).
"Our Common Butterflies," Frank E. Lutz, (Guide Leaflet No. 38, American Museum of Natural History).
"How to Collect and Preserve Insects," Frank E. Lutz, (Guide Leaflet No. 39, American Museum of Natural History).
"The Moth Book," W. J. Holland, Doubleday Page.
"The Butterfly Book," W. J. Holland, Doubleday Page.
"The Spider Book," J. H. Comstock, Doubleday Page.
"Moths and Butterflies," Mary C. Dickerson, Ginn and Co.
"Manual for the Study of Insects," J. H. and A. B. Comstock, Comstock Publishing Co.
"The Wonders of Instinct," Jean Henri Fabre, Century Co.
"Field Book of Insects," Frank E. Lutz, Putnam.
b. Sea Shore Life
"The Sea-Beach at Ebb Tide," A. F. Arnold, The Century Co.
"Sea-Shore Life," A. G. Mayer, (New York Zoological Society 1906).
"Introduction to Zoology," C. B. and G. C. Davenport, Macmillan Co., 1900.


III. GROUP BADGES

The Scout who follows one line of interest sufficiently long to qualify in several related subjects may take a Group Badge signifying proficiency in the general field.
1. SCOUT NEIGHBOR (any four)
Citizen***
Health Guardian***
Economist
Business Woman***
Telegrapher
Interpreter
Motorist****
Canner
[534]
3. SCOUT AIDE[10]
First Aide***
Home Nurse***
Homemaker
Health Winner
Health Guardian***
Child Nurse*** or Cook
4. WOODCRAFT SCOUT (any three)
Athlete***
Motorist****
Horsewoman
Sailor
Swimmer
Pioneer
Pathfinder
5. SCOUT NATURALIST
To earn this Badge a Scout must have passed three of the tests of Bird Hunter, Flower Finder, Rock Tapper, Star Gazer or Zoologist. She must also pass the following brief test:
1. What sorts of things are included in Nature Study?
2. What are the other names for living and non-living objects?
3. Read one of the following general books on Nature Study.
GENERAL NATURE STUDY REFERENCES:
"Handbook of Nature Study," Anna Botsford Comstock, Comstock Publishing Co. (Manual for Leaders).
"Nature Study and Life," Clifton F. Hodge, Ginn and Co.
"The Story Book of Science," J. Henri Fabre, Century Co.
"Leaf and Tendril," John Burroughs, Houghton Mifflin.
"Wake Robin," John Burroughs, Houghton Mifflin.
"Natural History of Selbourne," Gilbert White.
"Travels in Alaska," John Muir.
"My First Summer in the Sierras," John Muir.[535]
6. LAND SCOUT
Gardener
Farmer
Dairy Maid
Bee Keeper


IV. GOLDEN EAGLET
SYMBOL—A GOLD EAGLET PIN OR PENDANT

Qualifications: Only First Class Scouts are eligible for this, the highest award offered to Girl Scouts. To obtain this a girl must have been given the Medal of Merit and in addition have won twenty-one Proficiency Badges, of which fifteen must be:
Athlete***Health Guardian***
Bird Hunter or Flower Finder or Zoologist        Health Winner
Citizen***Homemaker
CookHome Nurse***
DressmakerHostess
EconomistLaundress
First Aide***Child Nurse***
Pioneer
[536]


V. SPECIAL MEDALS

ATTENDANCE STAR
To earn this a Scout must attend every troop meeting for a year. A year is counted as one meeting a week for eight months, or two meetings a week for four months.
1. The gold star is given for attendance at all regular troop meetings held during a period of one year. Punctuality is required and no excuses allowed.
2. The silver star is given for attendance at 90 per cent of all regular troop meetings.
3. The attendance badge may be given only to a girl who has belonged to the organization for one year; the badges therefore denote how many years a girl has been a Scout.
LIFE SAVING MEDALS
1. The Bronze Cross is given as the highest possible award for gallantry, and may be won only when the claimant has shown special heroism or has faced extraordinary risk of life.
2. The Silver Cross is awarded for saving life with considerable risk to oneself.
3. These two medals are worn over the right pocket.
4. Applications must be made by the girl's Captain, who should send to National Headquarters, through the Local Council, if there is one, a full account with written evidence from two witnesses of the deed.
[537]
MEDAL OF MERIT
1. The Medal of Merit is designed for the Scout who does her duty exceptionally well, though without grave risk to herself.
2. This medal is worn over the right pocket.
3. Only registered Scouts are entitled to this medal.
4. Application for this medal should be made by the girl's Captain, who should send to National Headquarters, through the Local Council, if there is one, a full account of the circumstances upon which the claim is based.

THANKS BADGE
1. The Thanks Badge may be given to anyone to whom a Scout owes gratitude for assistance in promoting Scouting. Every Girl Scout anywhere in the whole world when she sees the Thanks Badge, recognizes that the person who wears it is a friend and it is her duty to salute and ask if she can be of service to the wearer of the badge.
2. The Thanks Badge may be worn on a chain or ribbon.
3. The approval of National Headquarters must be obtained before the Thanks Badge is presented to anyone. Applications may be sent to National Headquarters by any registered Scout (whether Captain, Lieutenant, or Girl Scout) giving the name of the person to whom the badge is to be given and the circumstances which justify the award. Unless the badge is to be presented to the Captain herself, her recommendation is required.
SCHOLARSHIP BADGE; For this see Blue Book of Rules, Edition, March 1922, p-4.[538]


VI. GIRL SCOUT OFFICERS AND CLASS INSIGNIA

CAPTAIN'S PIN
LIEUTENANT'S PIN
TENDERFOOT PIN
SECOND-CLASS BADGE
FIRST-CLASS BADGE
CORPORAL
PATROL LEADER
EX-PATROL LEADER
[539]
VII. FLOWER CRESTS FOR TROOPS